World Before and After the Industrial Revolution


The Industrial Revolution is a period of transition from manual labor, crafts and manufactory to large-scale machine and factory production.

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An industrial revolution is a period of changing from hand-made, handicraft and manufactory to large-scale machine factory and plant production. An implementation the machines and mechanisms into the production and transport replaced manual labor of people and was an important part of the industrial discovery. A global process has changed the economic, social, demographic, trade development of countries. England, France, Germany, the United States and Russia achieved the greatest result in the industrial revolution. It is necessary  to characterize an industrial growth, socio-economic consequences, trade, and place of the leading countries in the world industrial production, as with comparing to how to run plagiarism check on google docs  and contrasting the world before and after the industrial changing.

First, the sectoral structure of the world economy has changed considerably. Before the period of industrial change, such industries as textiles, metallurgy, printing, ceramic, cloth, chemical, metalworking, cotton, sugar were in a difficult situation. Medieval handicraft production, the main forms of which were workshops, has been prevailed for a long time. The crafts production was ineffective. In the US, most textile factories worked on water energy. It was a cheap energy of water engines due to the late introduction of new cars. After the end of the industrial revolution, developed countries are characterized by structural changes in the economy. This radical coup of productive forces began with the adaptation of working machines and steam energy. Initially, it happened in the light industry, then capturing all the major spheres of material production - heavy industry, transport and, at last, agriculture. The machines’ implementation has accelerated the development such branches as metallurgy, coal, machinery, textile, printing, ceramic and other industries. There were new industrial areas specializing in producing certain types of goods and products. The military-industrial base rapidly developed and great importance was attached to railway construction. Especially, fast agricultural engineering was introduced into the economy.

Moreover, the industrial revolution plays an important role in changing the social sphere of development of the countries of the world. Before the industrial revolution, the socio-economic situation of society is characterized by the domination of feudal land tenure and the growth of factories, which were located, as a rule, in rural areas. Most of the population employed in agriculture and worked on feudal lords and masters. After the industrial revolution, the social structure of society has changed, and the number of workers has increased, which amounted to almost half of the employed population. Urbanization has accelerated and a significant part of the population has started to live in cities. The revolution leads to the last formation of the capitalist system and the industrialization, the strengthening of class contradictions, the appearance of workers' and trade union movement. The social character of production, which became firmly established, along with the victory of the factory organization over the manufactory, and the privately capitalist form of appropriation exacerbated the main contradiction in the early capitalist system. The process of deconstruction of the feudal system and the spread of the capitalist system caused some changes in the class structure. The main classes of the feudal society - nobles and peasants - are ruined. Social type, which is engaged in business activities, removes their hands fixed assets, appears among the nobles, peasants and bourgeois merchant class. The class of the bourgeoisie is formed from this environment. Along with the process of birth of the bourgeoisie is a class of hired workers, the source of the ruined peasantry, urban artisans, etc.

In addition to the distinctive features of the industrial revolution before and after its establishment, the economic situation of the countries in the world community remained unchanged. Before the industrial revolution, England, for example, was always the first supplier and producer of products in Europe, because the wars had little impact on it. She came to a good level of supply of textiles, cotton and other materials. After the industrial revolution, England went to a qualitatively new technical level of the cotton industry and held a leading place in the textile industry. France has never differed great achievements in technological progress either before or after the industrial revolution. In general, the engineering and technical base in France lagged behind English during this period. In Germany, manufactory craft production dominated over the long period before the industrial revolution. After the industrial revolution, Germany opened the largest factories in the world, thus preserving the same shops, only by improving their production systems. Before the start of the American industrial revolution, the country's economy developed, but not so fast as in European countries. It was an agrarian country; it remained the same after the coup. Before the revolution, the Americans worked mainly on British cars. After the industrial revolution, there was a very high demand for American equipment, which was even better than English. They gradually began to let out their cars. The development of railway construction contributed to the accelerated growth of metallurgy, mining and machine-building industries.

Consequently, an industrial revolution embraced Britain, the United States, Germany, France, and other European countries. The agrarian and economic preconditions were created for the establishment of a new industrial civilization. Since the period of the industrial revolution had, its peculiarities in each country, the level of their economic development, the place in the global manufacturing were different. The world, before and after the industrial revolution, had its own differences and some common moments of the development. The industrial revolution moved from the manufactory production of the country to the factory. Many people freed from feudal lords, factories and plants received cheap labor. Due to this, the world gets cheaper and faster machine production than human labor. The society has also undergone changes under the influence of the industrial revolution. However, the leading places of the world remained unchanged; they only improved their economic situation.

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